The Breed History
Originating in the British Isles, the original Black and Tan progenitor terrier for this breed was a heavier set dog with a coarser coat. In Manchester England, history records that a fancier who wanted a dog for both hare coursing and rat killing bred a whippet and a crossbred ratter terrier. Other breed ancestors potentially include Greyhound, Italian Greyhound and Dachshunds. AKC recognition occurred in 1886 (Toy) and 1887 (Standard). Until 1959, the two sizes of Manchester were two separate breeds. The toy was developed from the standard.
Breeding for Function
Vermin control was the primary purpose for these dogs. As a ratter in the field and in pub pit rat killing contests they excelled. They were courageous enthusiastic hunting companions. The toy variety was a lady's pet. Both varieties are now valued show and companion dogs.
Height at Withers: Standard 15-16 inches (39-40 cm).
Weight of Standard: 12-22 lb (5.5-10 kg)
Height at Withers: Toy 10-12 inches (25-30 cm).
Weight of Toy: 7 up to 12 lb (3-5.5 kg).
Coat: The sleek short hair coat is black with mahogany markings; distinct, not smudgy borders-well defined pattern.
Longevity: 14-15 years.
Points of Conformation: These dogs have a long muzzle, flat wedge-shaped skull, slight stop, and their bone structure is sleek and athletic. Ears are naturally pricked up, and the dogs are a bit longer than high. Almond-shaped slanting close-set dark eyes, and a strong jaw ending in a black nose characterizes the face. Ears vary only slightly with Standard ears being erect, cropped, or button. Toys must have naturally erect ears only. The neck is slim, slightly arched and moderately long, the topline has a slight arch, chest is narrow but deep, abdomen is mildly tucked, and a slightly curved tail tapers to finish just short of the tarsal joint.
Recognized Behavior Issues and Traits
Reported breed characteristics include that they are: Agile, loyal, intelligent, they respond well to obedience training. They maintain a well-developed chase instinct, so should not be left off-leash unless in an enclosure. They are excellent watchdogs, and enjoy close contact with humans. They require minimal grooming and are low to moderate shedders. They should be socialized early to other pets and people.
Normal Physiologic Variations
von Willebrand's Disease Type 1 (vWD): Autosomal recessive genetic disorder causing a mild bleeding syndrome. A direct genetic test is available from VetGen that reports 4% affected, and 37% carrier in the breed. Reported at a frequency of 2.72% in the Manchester Terrier Health and Genetics Survey.
Hip Dysplasia and Legg-Calve Perthes Disease: Polygenically inherited traits causing degenerative hip joint disease and arthritis. Too few Manchester Terriers have been screened by OFA to determine an accurate frequency. Breeding studies in Manchester Terriers show a high heritability for Legg-Calve Perthes Disease. Reported at a frequency of 1.46% in the Manchester Terrier Health and Genetics Survey.
Patella Luxation: Polygenically inherited laxity of patellar ligaments, causing luxation, lameness, and later degenerative joint disease. Treat surgically if causing clinical signs. Too few Manchester Terriers have been screened by OFA to determine an accurate frequency. Reported at a frequency of 1.17% in the Manchester Terrier Health and Genetics Survey.
Elbow Dysplasia: Polygenically inherited trait causing elbow arthritis. Too few Manchester Terriers have been screened by OFA to determine an accurate frequency.
Missing Teeth: Reported at a frequency of 18.37% in the Manchester Terrier Health and Genetics Survey. Unknown mode of inheritance.
Hypothyroidism: Inherited autoimmune thyroiditis. 8.9% positive for thyroid auto-antibodies based on testing at Michigan State University. (Ave. for all breeds is 7.5%).
Anal Gland Disease: Anal sacculitis and anal gland infection. Dorn reports a 2.92x odds ratio in Manchester Terriers versus other breeds. Reported at a frequency of 3.40% in the Manchester Terrier Health and Genetics Survey.
Cryptorchidism: Can be bilateral or unilateral. Reported at a frequency of 3.21% in the Manchester Terrier Health and Genetics Survey.
Demodicosis: Demodectic mange dermatitis has an underlying immunodeficiency in its pathogenesis. Reported at a frequency of 2.53% in the Manchester Terrier Health and Genetics Survey. Unknown mode of inheritance.
Seasonal Flank Alopecia: Bilateral, symmetrical hair loss affecting the flank, dorsum and tail. Dorn reports a 10.55x odds ratio in Manchester Terriers versus other breeds. Reported at a frequency of 1.85% in the Manchester Terrier Health and Genetics Survey.
Umbilical Hernia: Congenital opening in the body wall from where the umbilical cord was attached. Correct surgically if large. Reported at a frequency of 1.75% in the Manchester Terrier Health and Genetics Survey. Unknown mode of inheritance.
Deafness: Congenital sensorineural deafness can be unilateral of bilateral. Diagnosed by BAER testing. Reported at a frequency of 1.46% in the Manchester Terrier Health and Genetics Survey. Unknown mode of inheritance.
Cataracts: Too few Manchester Terriers have been CERF eye examined to determine an accurate frequency in the breed. Reported in 3.81% of Manchester Terriers presented to veterinary teaching hospitals. Reported at a frequency of 1.36% in the Manchester Terrier Health and Genetics Survey.
Diabetes Mellitus: Sugar diabetes. Caused by a lack of insulin production by the pancreas. Controlled by insulin injections, diet, and glucose monitoring. Dorn reports a 8.81x odds ratio in Manchester Terriers versus other breeds.
Juvenile Cardiomyopathy: Several Manchester Terriers under the age of one year have died in heart failure with a post-mortum diagnosis of juvenile cardiomyopathy. Research at Prince Edward Island and the University of Pennsylvania is looking into the cause of this disorder.
Other Ocular Disorders: Too few Manchester Terriers have been CERF examined to determine an accurate breed frequency of ocular disorders.
Cleft Lip/Palate, Cutaneous Asthenia, Hydrocephalus, Lens Luxation, Oligodontia, Progressive Retinal Atrophy, and Retained Primary Teeth are reported.
Isolated Case Studies
X-linked Myotubular Myopathy: Three male Manchester Terriers presented at 2 months of age due to weakness and failure to thrive. Other males in the dam's previous litter showed similar symptoms. Muscle biopsy revealed a myotubular myopathy, and genetic analysis found a mutation in the MTM1 gene on the X-chromosome.
Tests of Genotype: Direct test for vWD is available from VetGen.
Tests of Phenotype: CHIC Certification: Required testing includes hip radiographs, thyroid profile including autoantibodies, and genetic test for VWD. Recommend patella evaluation, elbow radiographs, CERF eye examination, and cardiac examination.
- Breed name synonyms: Toy Manchester Terrier, Black and Tan Terrier (historical), Toy Black and Tan Terrier (historical), English Toy Terrier, Gentleman's Terrier (historical)
- Registries: AKC, CKC, UKC, KCGB (Kennel Club of Great Britain), ANKC (Australian National Kennel Club), NKC (National Kennel Club)
- AKC rank (year 2008): 107 (404 dogs registered)
- Internet resources: American Manchester Terrier Club: http://clubs.akc.org/mtca
Canadian Manchester Terrier Club: www.canadamt.com
British Manchester Terrier Club: www.british-manchester-terrier-club.co.uk
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