Type of animal science: Anatomy, classification, evolution Fields of study: AAnthropology, archaeology, evolutionary science, human origins, physiology,
systematics (taxonomy) Neanderthals are the best-known extinct members of the human lineage. It is generally agreed that they were close relatives
of modern humans, but the nature of the relationship is vigorously debated. They have been assumed to be a direct
ancestor, a diseased member of the species, or an extinct side branch of the family tree.